Power devices for wearable devices and cars


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PMICs are the best choice for small battery powered devices as they can offer a complete power solution in one chip and include functions such as voltage converters, regulators, battery fuel indicators, battery chargers, and LED drivers. Low-power PMICs should offer built-in form factors and high efficiency to provide long battery life in wearables. In computation-intensive systems such as SoCs, FPGAs, and microcontrollers, the goal is to maximize performance per watt which contributes to overall system efficiency. Although an important aspect at the design stage, managing DC power in electrically critical environments is a lesser-known but important issue for ADAS system designers. PMIC solutions provide DC and low current power protection and reduce electromagnetic interference providing a comfortable vehicle power management environment. The adoption of PMIC solutions in various devices helped to use energy efficiently and extend the life of these devices. The demand for power management integrated circuits is expected to increase in the near future. Challenges Energy management has become a complex issue that deserves a lot of attention from developers because microelectronic systems are evolving in terms of drastically reducing size and increasing energy consumption requirements: this is what happens to electronic wearable systems. The application of electric energy harvesting technologies and the latest generation of supercapacitors can be a good strategy for effectively solving such problems. Light, compact IoT wearables require small and compact batteries with short operating times. PMIC can provide flexibility by enabling / disabling power combinations as needed to efficiently manage voltage buses in Internet of Things wearable designs. Basically PMIC can allow wearable IoT device to operate for a longer period of time between charges. In addition to design flexibility, PMIC includes protection, monitoring and control. The power management system converts DC-DC energy into three distinct shapes, with differences in size, flexibility and efficiency. Linear regulators can be fully integrated and have scalable voltage but are not effective. Capacitor based switching regulators can be fully integrated and efficient but do not have voltage scalability. Inductance based switching regulators can be of high efficiency and voltage scalability cannot be fully integrated. The overall design of the energy management subsystem includes many challenges. Sufficient space must be provided for power supply, and it must fit within the space provided. There must be enough space adjacent to the power supply to allow cooling when a normal load power source is used. If you use forced air cooling, you need adequate air movement around the power supply. “The thermal challenges of operating the high-current rods are fundamentally related to trying to keep the device’s internal temperature (junction temperature) from exceeding what has been set for the device,” said Tom Sandoval, BU’s Senior Vice President, Auto, Dialog Semiconductor. He added: “Higher current means more power dissipation which leads to more heat, which makes designing a device that provides high current at the specified ambient temperature of the system without exceeding the specified junction temperature of the device more difficult. Which will occur at a certain current level. In addition, the type of packaging used for the device can affect how the equipment is heated during operation. Finally, at the system level, various heat dissipation techniques are used in order to ensure that the equipment continues to operate within the specified conduction temperature. ” The design is often difficult and problematic, requiring good knowledge of the compensation control cycle and the operation of electrical power management integrated circuits. Having a design-oriented simulation tool can be beneficial to speed up and simplify PMIC solution development. Solutions Power management integrated circuits (PMICs) designed with DC-DC converters for wearable devices can be an effective tool to extend battery life. By taking advantage of the entire battery voltage range, since each output has the advantage of being a buck boost configuration, these transformers can create an output voltage that is higher, lower, or equal to the input voltage. With a feature such as programmable peak inductor current for each output, the balance between efficiency, output ripple, and electromagnetic interference (EMI), PCB design and design load capacity can be improved. The PMIC MAX77650 and MAX77651 units include a built-in 150 mA Low Leakage Regulator (LDO) that provides ripple rejection for noise sensitive applications. The SIMO control scheme controller ensures that all outputs are taken care of in time. Figure 1: Diagram of the MAX77650 “Our customer base in wearables, headphones and low-power IoT is at the intersection of cutting-edge technology and aesthetics. These are brands that fit into everyday life.” Said Karthy Gopalan, Product Line Manager, Mobile Power, at Maxim Integrated, these markets are gaining immense traction with increasing global reliance on intelligent AI assistants, dynamic on-the-go tracking, and precise location tracking. “With Maxim’s integrated low-power single-inductance, multi-output (SIMO) PMIC, we deliver the highest efficiency. The system is in the smallest form factor for such designs that are limited in space. PMIC can now cut solution size in half. This frees up panel space for packing value-added units such as voice commands, push, GPS receivers, biometrics, gesture control, 3D recognition, and camera modules. ”In automotive applications, there are three primary challenges PMIC has to face: temperature, Qualifications, and safety.Vehicle applications must operate in an ambient temperature range of at least -40 to 105 ° C, so semiconductor devices require superior performance over a wider temperature range.Automotive applications require much higher quality levels to ensure nearer failure rates This has implications for design, qualification requirements, and device testing / inspection to ensure that the highest levels of quality are met throughout the life of the vehicle, Sandoval said in many automotive applications there are elements related to safety, i.e. the ability to Preventing faults.A device must be able to manage electrical faults and provide a possible solution, Sandoval said, “Additional circuits must be designed in the device to support this type of capacity, which leads to increased complexity and cost.” Dialog’s ultra-compact DA913X-A saves a low BoM system cost and a small solution footprint. The devices operate at levels of efficiency in excess of 90%, reducing the thermal design challenges of high-current rail operation in a wide range of systems including Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). The DA913X-A family consists of three devices configured as single or dual-output inverters. The DA9130-A functions as a single channel and two-phase buck converter that delivers up to 10 amps of output current. The DA9131-A integrates two single-phase buck transformers, each providing an output current of up to 5A. The DA9132-A also integrates two single-phase buck inverters, each providing an output current of up to 3A. All devices have an input voltage range of 2.5V to 5.5V and an output voltage range of 0.3V to 1.9V, making them suitable for a wide variety of low voltage systems. The output voltages above 1.9V are supported by an external resistance divider. Figure 2: DA913X-A block diagram.


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