Although more than 70% of the land is covered with water, 97.2% of the water is salt water. Of 2.8% of fresh water, most of it is frozen in polar ice; Less than 1% of total water is fresh ground or surface water. Of all fresh water, only 1% is drinkable. In other words, only 0.01% of the water on Earth is drinkable. According to the World Health Organization, 884 million people lack access to safe drinking water. Also, one in three people worldwide faces water stress or the need to compete for a limited amount of water. Climate change will exacerbate these problems, as droughts and floods make the distribution of water resources more uneven. An effective water management is required that conserves water by reducing waste and recycling wastewater more effectively. So is flood mitigation to protect vulnerable cities and infrastructure. In addition, agricultural irrigation consumes 48% of the total fresh water. Of the remaining 52%, energy production accounts for 22%, with 6% for industrial use and 24% for activities in residential buildings such as bathroom cleaning, flushing, and showers. These different sectors share similar problems, such as water leakage and / or inefficient use of water. Poor water quality is also a problem. So what can be done to address these problems? Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) might offer some potential solutions. Smarter Monitoring The bathroom includes many points. These points include buildings and homes that use water. Other points in the cycle are renewable sources of water such as dams, lakes and groundwater. Aquatic plants; Water towers and wastewater treatment plants. All of these points can be made smarter with IoT sensors that monitor water use or quality. Smart water management encompasses many points, including renewable resources, water plants, cleaning networks, water quality investigations, water towers, and buildings. (Source: Birdz) Smarter water leakage detection, smart metering, and intelligent water distribution Surprisingly, water damage poses a much greater risk than fire or theft to homeowners. Water leakage causes water to be wasted. Moreover, leaks can damage floors, walls, and ceilings in a home and require expensive repairs. Waterproofing is also common in large buildings in many countries in the European Union. In an IoT system, moisture sensors can be installed around the building to detect leaks. The sensors will collect the data and send it back to the cloud for analyzes. Once the analyzes detect an anomaly, the command sent to the smart valve will automatically shut off the water, minimizing the leakage. Smart metering can reduce water use by using programmed automatic “open” or “shutdown” commands remotely, balancing water distribution and preventing uncontrolled use. Smart metering can also prevent uncontrolled and unpredictable leaks from escalating into floods. Using smart water management, Robeau has helped European Union airports, restaurants, factories, offices and malls achieve water savings in the 25% to 40% range. Flood control Cities and municipalities are increasingly faced with flood problems as climate change makes the weather more extreme, causing dangerous droughts and major floods. Floods are a real concern in North America and other parts of the world. Unlike in the past, floods become a year-round event, occurring after huge snowstorms in winter and following rainstorms and hurricanes in other seasons. Issuing early and accurate flood warnings to save lives and avoid property damage remains a challenge despite advances in satellite imaging and weather forecasting technologies. In the IIoT monitoring system, a distributed network of GPS-tagged water sensors or ultrasound depth sensors can be installed over bridges, rivers, streams and storm drains. Sensors collect data about water levels from different locations for analysis. Once analyzes determine the necessity of early flood warning, mobile phone alerts can be sent out to local businesses, first responders, and communities and governments that may be affected. Flood surveillance systems have been deployed in several cities such as Virginia Beach and Newport News, Virginia. Using smart agricultural water The agricultural industry consumes more fresh water than any other industry or human activity. The lack of real-time supervision and management resulted in a high percentage of irrigation water being wasted. The IIoT-Controlled Intelligent Irrigation System can collect real-time water use data from sensors installed around farms. Based on sensor data, the system can turn on and off the water, depending on the irrigation needs, to prevent misuse or underuse. Also, the sensors can help detect and treat leaks in water pipes to reduce water waste. Additionally, smart sensors can help farmers track temperatures, precipitation, humidity and wind conditions. By using sensors to help ensure required soil moisture levels, crops are watered efficiently. Moreover, water sensors can monitor other variables in the soil, such as pH levels, as too much soil acidity can prevent plants from absorbing nutrients. Soil salinity assessment is also critical, as some crops are salt tolerant, while others are not. Finally, the oxidation potential of water (ORP) refers to its ability to break down pollutants; ORP tracking is useful for monitoring levels of water pollutants. Several pilot projects have shown that farmers can achieve significant water savings with the Internet of Things. For example, Kerlink, a French Internet of Things solution provider, is working with Sensoterra, a Dutch manufacturer of soil moisture sensors. Robeau works with farms in Scotland, Ireland and France to achieve 25% water savings. Water quality Industrial, agricultural and household wastewater should be treated to remove pollutants or pollutants. It is imperative that pH drainage, suspended solids and connection standards be met prior to discharge to urban water networks or natural water sources. Two different methods can be used to measure pollutants: The biological oxygen demand (BOD) measures the amount of oxygen required for bacteria to break down organic components in wastewater. Chemical demand for oxygen (COD) in wastewater refers to the total amount of organic and inorganic chemicals. A higher level of COD means there is a large amount of oxidative organic matter in the water, which reduces dissolved oxygen levels and puts higher aquatic life forms at risk. Thus, a higher COD or BOD indicates a higher level of pollution or lower quality of the treated wastewater. IIoT sensors that measure variables such as pH, turbidity, conductivity, and oxygen levels in wastewater will help in monitoring the efficiency of water treatment plants. Stagnant water is also a source of pollution. Using IoT sensors to monitor standing water can help schedule time-controlled disinfection to reduce the potential for contamination. Design considerations and challenges Because Internet of Things (IIoT) sensors are installed over a large area, communication between the sensors and other system components is critical. Sensors used to monitor water are often submerged, exposed to outside elements, or both, so they also need to be durable to withstand extreme temperatures. It is expected to take 10 to 20 years of field operation without maintenance or battery replacement, which means that the power consumption should be very low. Optimizing the usage of wireless bandwidth is also essential. Design Case 1: Drinking Water Quality The Hycleen Automation System from GF Piping Systems is used to keep drinking water clean in buildings. The system contains temperature and flow sensors that continuously collect data about the temperature and flow of water, respectively. Data is analyzed to guide the system to perform hydraulic balancing, implement controlled thermal disinfection, flush lines as needed, or alert the user if malfunctions occur. Moreover, the consumption controlled cleaning is finely tuned. First, measure your efficient water consumption over a specified period. Then compare the data with the target exchange volume. Only the difference is erased, not the entire volume, thus minimizing the flux volume and optimizing power consumption without increasing the risk of corps infection. The Hycleen system can be controlled remotely using any smartphone or similar device via an app. The Hycleen System can be integrated into the Building Management System; It has been used with success in complex buildings, such as hotels, hospitals, schools, apartment complexes and industrial facilities in Europe. The Hycleen Automation System from GF Piping Systems is an example of a cloud-based water quality management system. It contains temperature and flow sensors that continuously collect data on the temperature and flow of water. (Source: GF Piping Systems) Design Case 2: Pollution Control Birdz WARM buoys measure water quality in remote reservoirs. The multi-parameter sensors of the system allow the measurement of quality or environmental parameters, such as conductivity, absolute pressure, temperature, active chlorine, turbidity and organic matter. The real-time data collected is sent directly to the end user or the remote server via its wireless communication unit. Also, the buoy is low maintenance and energy self-sufficient; It contains a power unit that includes a battery and an energy recovery system. Buoys were deployed to the Malmsbury reservoir in Australia in 2018. Maintenance required was very low; The system required only one probe replacement and two physical maintenance calls within the first year of deployment. Looking to the future There is an initial investment in implementing smart water management systems. The use of IoT systems to monitor water bodies or water quality may require a large number of sensors over areas requiring monitoring, depending on the applications. Therefore, the cost-effectiveness of the sensors as well as the IoT system is a consideration. The future payoff, once the systems are installed, can be substantial. The systems will be able to provide smart water monitoring, water leakage detection, smart meters, smart water distribution, flood monitoring, smart agricultural use of water and improve water quality. As sensors are deployed to remote areas, continuous improvement of sensors to increase reliability and energy efficiency and reduce maintenance is essential. .