What to do and what to avoid in operating low / medium voltage circuit breakers, relays, hinges and fuses


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Operating protection equipment: Normally, protection of electrical system, low voltage, medium voltage or high voltage, whichever, does not depend entirely on one component. The protection system is often a coordinated combination of multiple switching and protection units working in tandem to achieve the desired level of protection and reliability. Units or components are either assembled within a panel or housed independently depending on the uses and construction. Do’s and Don’ts for low / medium voltage circuit breakers, relays, hinges, and fuses (photo credit: riakchr.ru), components find use in power generation substations, power distribution substations, and substations For end use, industrial establishments, and any other places that depend on the use of electrical energy. We often keep components like circuit breakers and fuses, relays, switches, etc. in one chip of protection. In this article, we will analyze it from a fresh perspective. Although they are somewhat similar in terms of basic function, how these elements retain their character and require a special procedure to function perfectly. The article describes how the protection zone, operating sequences, voltage level and various other factors affect switching equipment in operation and what should or should not be done while it is in operation Table of Contents: Criteria for selection of switch elements Voltage level and power rating Impact of tolerances, switching rates and pressure values ​​Switching elements in medium voltage networks Fuse Circuit Breaker Special Attention! Manual relays Ground switches Switches in low voltage networks Circuit breakers Disconnectors and fuses Coordinate protection Let’s summarize 1. Criteria for selecting switch elements 1.1 Voltage level and power rating Depending on the voltage level and basic function, the type and number of switching elements in the substation varies. For example, for a medium / low voltage electrical power distribution substation the main focus is on operational flexibility, selectivity, future scalability and adequate level of protection, and likewise, for the special power distribution setup of commercial or industrial buildings, the focus shifts towards More control, frequent switching, and maximum protection level. Future expansion may not be the main focus of these facilities. These factors lead to slight changes in the types and numbers of installed switch elements. Figure 1 – Example of switching elements in a substation 11/33 kV Figure 1 – What to do and what to avoid in LV operation and circuit breakers, relays and hinges The switching elements are designed to operate up to the upper limit of the maximum system voltage because, with the exception of some exceptions Fuses, all high voltage switching elements are zero current circuit breakers. System voltage is the most important determining factor in selecting a switching element that helps determine the dielectric stress on switching devices during circuit breakage. The rated power or rated current of the switchgear also affects the choice of protection elements in the LV / MV power distribution system. For example, in a low-voltage system, heavy-duty MCCBs control the power distribution to a maximum rated current of 800 amps, while for anything higher than that, ACBs are better preferred. Current, etc., all play their role in selecting electrical switches. This article / technical guide requires premium membership. You can choose the Plus, Pro, or Enterprise membership plan on a yearly basis. Subscribe and enjoy studying specialized technical articles, online video courses, electrical engineering guides, and research. With premium membership in EEP, you get an additional core that enhances your knowledge and expertise in low, medium and high voltage engineering fields. Check the benefits of each plan and choose the membership plan that works best for you or your organization. With the Enterprise subscription plan, get 50% off all EEP Academy video courses and packages. Special Offer: – 15% discount on the Pro Premium plan with discount code: UX21ML Login »Learn more»


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